TitleMetagenomic analysis indicates that stressors induce production of herpes-like viruses in the coral Porites compressa
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsThurber, RLVega, Barott, KL, Hall, D, Liu, H, Rodriguez-Mueller, B, Desnues, C, Edwards, RA, Haynes, M, Angly, FE, Wegley, L, Rohwer, FL
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume105
Issue47
Pagination18413-8
Date Published2008 Nov 25
KeywordsVirus Replication
Abstract

During the last several decades corals have been in decline and at least one-third of all coral species are now threatened with extinction. Coral disease has been a major contributor to this threat, but little is known about the responsible pathogens. To date most research has focused on bacterial and fungal diseases; however, viruses may also be important for coral health. Using a combination of empirical viral metagenomics and real-time PCR, we show that Porites compressa corals contain a suite of eukaryotic viruses, many related to the Herpesviridae. This coral-associated viral consortium was found to shift in response to abiotic stressors. In particular, when exposed to reduced pH, elevated nutrients, and thermal stress, the abundance of herpes-like viral sequences rapidly increased in 2 separate experiments. Herpes-like viral sequences were rarely detected in apparently healthy corals, but were abundant in a majority of stressed samples. In addition, surveys of the Nematostella and Hydra genomic projects demonstrate that even distantly related Cnidarians contain numerous herpes-like viral genes, likely as a result of latent or endogenous viral infection. These data support the hypotheses that corals experience viral infections, which are exacerbated by stress, and that herpes-like viruses are common in Cnidarians.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0057164